Glossary

Brandspeak has compiled this market research glossary to provide definitions for some of the most commonly used research terms – we hope you find it useful. If you feel that key words or phrases are missing or in any way incomplete, please let us know so that we can keep evolving these pages.
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There are currently 7 names in this directory beginning with the letter R.
Random Sampling
Random sampling is the simplest form of probability sampling whereby each person in the sample is chosen at random and entirely by chance. This means that each individual within the sample has the same probability of being chosen. This, in turn, means that bias is removed from the selection process and should result in representative samples. By way of example, random sampling is when the names of 50 employees out of a total workforce of 250 are pulled from a hat. In order to be accurate, random sampling relies on having complete lists of the whole population.

Reciprocity bias
Reciprocity bias describes the hard-wired impulse to reciprocate actions others have done towards us. When others act in a positive manner towards us our natural reaction is to repay in kind. However, when we are on the receiving end of negative behaviour the gut reaction is to respond in a similar vein. Reciprocity bias is widely used in sales and marketing. For example, giving out basic versions of products or services so that the recipient can take

Regression Analysis
Regression analysis is one of the most common statistical techniques and is used to compare relationships between dependent and independent variables. Regression analysis helps to identify and understand how the typical value of the dependent variable changes when any one of the independent variables changes, whilst the other independent variables are kept fixed. Regression analysis is a tool commonly used in prediction and financial forecasting.

Representative Sample
A representative sample is a subset of larger cohort that adheres to the characteristics of that cohort. A representative sample may be recruited for the purposes of market research when it is not possible or desirable to gather data from the whole group – perhaps because they are too numerous. Key to recruiting a representative sample is that it should reflect the profile of the wider group across all relevant demographics, potentially including sex, age, education, working status and income. For example, in a village of 100 individuals, where 50 are male and 50 are female, a representative sample could include 20 men and 20 women.

Research Design
The term refers to the specification of research that is to be undertaken. The nature of that specification will vary depending on whether the research is qualitative or quantitative in nature. It could contain detail on methodology, sample, geographic focus, data collection approach, data analysis methodology and the format of any reporting.

Research Method
This term refers to the research approach selected to deliver the required insights. Research method examples include focus groups, depth interviews, bulletin boards, and surveys.

Response Rate
Within the context of a targeted marketing campaign the response rate refers to the number of responses received using the designated response mechanism, as a percentage of the original sample size. This could be in relation to an email or door drop campaign for example.

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