Brandspeak has compiled this market research glossary to provide definitions for some of the most commonly used research terms – we hope you find it useful. If you feel that key words or phrases are missing or in any way incomplete, please let us know so that we can keep evolving these pages.

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There are currently 28 names in this directory beginning with the letter C.
CAPI (Computer Aided Personal Interviewing)
Survey administered by interviewer using a computer-based questionnaire. The interviewer types the respondent’s answers directly in to the computer. The programme checks for invalid responses and will not accept responses outside prescribed limits.

CAPI Software
Computer software designed for an interviewer-administered survey using a computer-based questionnaire.

CASI (Computer Aided Self-Interview)
Computer Aided Self-Interview (CASI) is an interview method where the interviewee communicates directly with a computer instead of the interviewer.

CATI (Computer Aided Telephone Interviewing)
CATI is interviewer-administered, quantitative phone surveying using a computer-based questionnaire. Today CATI can be used in a telephone call centre or by phone interviewers based at home to carry out both B2B and B2C research. The CATI software allows the interviewer to ask the on-screen survey questions and then input the respondent’s answers directly in to the system for subsequent analysis. CATI telephone interviewing offers speed, quality and ease of use – as the respondent is automatically routed through the questionnaire based on their answers – removing the potential for human error.

Chi-Square
The Chi Square test is used to determine if there is a significant relationship between two nominal (categorical) variables. 

Cluster Analysis
Cluster analysis is a term referring to a class of techniques used to determine which category individuals within a population fall in to, through the quantitative comparison of multiple characteristics. Can also be referred to as classification analysis or numerical taxonomy.

Co-creation
The term co-creation refers to the rapid identification, capturing and creative exploration of ideas or concepts, typically within a focus group, workshop or online community. Sessions may focus on the development of new brands, products, services or customer experiences. Co-creation sessions often include client representatives as well as researchers and consumers, so that they can help guide respondents’ ideas towards a more useful outcome. Clients typically find the process both highly stimulating and rewarding. Whilst the benefit of focus group or workshop co-creation is that it is highly collaborative, online co-creativity enables larger numbers of respondents to take part and contribute to the process, playing off each other in the development of the idea or concept

Code of Conduct
A code of ethics and professional conduct within which market researchers are expected to operate. The Code details the researcher's obligations and responsibilities to both clients and participants in research. Examples include the UK Market Research Society's Code of Conduct and that of the US-based QRCA. Details of the Market Research Society’s Code of Conduct can be found here: https://www.mrs.org.uk/standards/code_of_conduct

Cognitive / Cognition
The term relates to the process whereby knowledge and / or understanding is acquired through experiences, the senses and thought. Cognition may be conscious or unconscious

Cognitive Biases
Cognitive biases are decision-making shortcuts that are hard-wired in to the brain and their role is to enable fast, efficient decision-making. They can also be the result of emotional predisposition, social influence or cognitive limitations. Cognitive biases often lead to errors and flawed decision making. Psychologists Amos Tversky and Nobel laureate Daniel Kahneman conducted pioneering research into this area in the 1970s.

Competitor Analysis
Competitor analysis can either be on-going or ad-hoc. On-going competitor analysis is often undertaken as part of a brand’s own tracking study, to review its performance against that of key competitors. In these instances issues such as awareness, consideration, usage and loyalty, as well as attitudes and perceptions are often captured on a rolling basis. Ad-hoc competitor analysis is more likely to be commissioned when a new market is being investigated for entry and the challenger brand wishes to understand the profile, strengths and weaknesses of the existing players. Conversely, competitor analysis may be required by an established brand when a competitor starts to make incursions in to its market. Ad-hoc competitor analysis will typically address the competitor’s brand from the perspective of its: Target market Brand proposition and positioning Product features and benefits Communications strategy – by channel Offers and promotions Pricing Attitudes and perceptions

Concept Test
A concept test refers to research conducted in order to assess consumers’ reactions to a new idea – typically in relation to a new product or service. Concept tests are often regarded as being qualitative in nature but can also be quantitative. Qualitative concept testing is more appropriate when the project is still in its exploratory phase. Quantitative concept testing is more likely to be used if the objective is to identify the strongest concept(s) from amongst several candidates. Concept test findings enable brand owners to determine whether or not the idea has enough merit to be pursued, as well as highlighting changes that need to be made before further development takes place.

Conflict Interviews
This term refers to a qualitative research technique whereby respondents with different or even conflicting attitudes and / or behaviours in relation to a specific issue are recruited so that the issue can be explored from different perspectives. The approach unlocks subject matter, explores the strength of the issues and opinions held and can be used to find common ground between different attitudinal / behavioural groups of consumers.

Conjoint Research
This research approach is used to assess how consumers make complex decisions when there are a number of factors to considered jointly (hence the name). The multivariate technique quantifies the relative value and importance that consumers attach to individual product attributes. The approach is frequently used to determine what features a new product or service should have and also how it should be priced.

Cool hunting market research
Often used to discover or predict nascent trends, the term refers to research conducted with younger consumers.

Copy Development Research
Also called pre-testing, this form of research is used to identify the reaction of target consumers to early stage advertising concepts or ‘copy’

Copy testing
The process of determining the level of understanding, impact, awareness, and credibility that ad advertisement generates.

Correlation
Correlation refers to the cause or effect relationship between two random variables. These variables are determined as positively correlated when the high values of one variable are related to the high values of the other. On the other hand, the variables are determined as being negatively correlated when high values in relation to one variable relate to the low values of the other variable.

Correlation Analysis
A statistical technique that helps to determine the strength of the relationship between variables.

Creative Development Research
A form of qualitative advertising research in which the strength of one or more advertising concepts are examined. The purpose is to identify strong candidates for further development

Cross Tabulation
Examination of the responses to one question relative to responses to one or more other questions.

Cross-Cultural Research
Market research conducted in two or more countries or across two or more cultural or ethnic groups.

Customer Experience Mapping
Customer experience mapping or CX mapping refers to the process of visually capturing every interaction that a customer has with the brand. Individual interactions are also known as ‘touch points. For each touch point the nature of the customer experience is captured and described, with particular reference to customer ‘pain points’ that are causing customer dissatisfaction – and potentially outright brand rejection. The map enables these pain points to be targeted and addressed, so that levels of customer satisfaction, loyalty, retention and profit can be maximised.

Customer Journey Mapping
A customer journey map tells the story of the end to end customer journey across all touchpoints between the customer and the organisation, potentially from initial awareness through to initial contact, purchasing, after sales support, and then renewal / repurchase. It maps the experience that the customer would like to receive within the context of the experience the brand has actually laid out for that customer. In doing so it identifies gap between the two. The nature of the gaps can be researched qualitatively and / or quantitatively in order to identify the exact nature of each and its effect on the consumer and the brand. These findings can then form the basis of any prioritisation and planning in relation to any remedial actions that may need to be taken.

Customer Satisfaction Research
A form of quantitative market research used to identify levels of customer satisfaction in relation to various aspects of brand provision. A customer satisfaction survey can be used to identify and target areas of poor brand performance for improvement.

Customer Segmentation
The practice of dividing customers into groups based on similarities in relation to criteria that are relevant to marketing, such as such as age, gender, interests and spending habits. Segmentation can also be based on attitude and / or behaviour. In the case of Business Segmentation, criteria are more likely to reflect sector, turnover and number of employees

CX Research
Refers to the process of identifying and capturing the customer’s experience of a brand across one or more touch points. CX stands for ‘customer experience’. For more on Brandspeak’s approach to CX Research please contact enquiries@brandspeak.co.uk

CX Survey
Research survey designed to quantify the nature of the customer experience being delivered by the brand.